This chapter mainly introduces the history of lithium ion battery development.
In order to meet the higher performance requirements of batteries, Japan’s Asahi Kasei company designed and developed lithium-ion batteries (LIB), which were commercialized in 1991 and 1902 by Sony and A&T Battery (a joint venture between Toshiba Battery and Asahi Kasei). Because the energy density of lithium ion batteries is higher than that of nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) or nickel-hydrogen (Ni-MH) batteries, with excellent performance and no memory effect, they are quickly accepted by the market.
At present, battery systems are mainly rechargeable lead-acid batteries and primary zinc-manganese batteries. These two batteries have a long history and mature technologies. Out of demand for higher performance batteries, lithium-ion batteries are challenging these mature battery systems. The lithium atom weight is low and the electrode potential is high, so lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density than traditional lead and zinc batteries. However, the development of high-energy lithium-ion systems is neither simple nor easy. It is necessary to establish a systematic method and technological breakthroughs based on the research of new positive and negative electrodes and non-aqueous electrolytes to maintain the steady improvement of high-energy lithium-ion battery systems.
Lithium metal primary batteries are based on non-aqueous electrolytes, such as the acrylate carbonate-lithium perchlorate and lithium negative electrode system batteries developed in the early 1970s, and the lithium carbon fluoride (Li-CFx) battery launched by Panasonic in 19783. Batteries, lithium manganese primary batteries commercialized by Sanyo in 1975, these batteries are used in LED fishing floats, cameras and memory backup devices. After hard research, high-energy-density primary lithium batteries have been developed into secondary batteries. Various research results are shown in Table 0.1. From the 1970s to the 1980s, the most studied inorganic negative electrode compounds were mainly studied in the 20th century. Conductive polymer materials such as polyacetylene have also been developed and may be used as electrode materials for positive and negative electrodes. However, the density of these polymer materials is lower than that of water. Except for PAS, when the battery size increases, the use of these materials will not have a competitive advantage. Studies have found that low-density conductive polymer positive electrodes can only be used on coin-type batteries for memory backup.
In the early days, secondary lithium-ion batteries were plagued by safety issues, which were caused by the formation of dendrites during repeated charging of the lithium metal negative electrode. For safety reasons, the use of high-performance perchlorate electrolytes has been discontinued because it easily forms lithium dendrites during the charging process. In 1989, Moli Energy found that the heat generation in AA batteries was related to metal lithium, and it was safer to switch to coin-type batteries using Li-AI alloy anodes. However, the smelting of alloys is not suitable for AA batteries. Tadiran has developed a dioxolane electrolyte that can polymerize autonomously above 110°C. The polyelectrolyte has high impedance and can terminate the battery reaction, providing battery safety. Lithium metal secondary batteries are now limited to small-capacity button batteries.
The lithium battery that was developed in the early stage and is still in use is based on the Li-AI-PAS electrochemical system. PASPAS or Li-doped PAHs-PAS hybrid batteries (PAHs polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the primal deformation of PAS) and small solar cells can be used as capacitors to provide a practical and convenient power source. This battery is now widely used at night Illuminated road signs or similar applications in remote areas. Other lithium alloys are also being developed for use as active materials in lithium-ion batteries.
The above is the approximate development history of lithium ion battery.